Democratic Forest Trusts (PDF)in Watson, Alan; Dean, Liese; Sproull, Janet, comps. 2006. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Eighth World Wilderness Congress Symposium; 2005 September 30-October 6; Anchorage, AK.Democratic trusts with leadership elected by citizen-members promise to solve many of the problems afflicting both traditional government and corporate ownership of forestlands.Â This article explores these issues in some depth.Complexity and the Dream of Human Control of Eco-Systems (PDF)in Watson, Alan; Dean, Liese; Sproull, Janet, comps. 2006. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Eighth World Wilderness Congress Symposium; 2005 September 30-October 6; Anchorage, AK.The title captures it.Â I then explore the kinds of institutions compatible with both nature and the modern world that are implied from this analysis.Rethinking the Obvious: Modernity and Living Respectfully With Nature (PDF)The Trumpeter: Journal of Ecosophy, Winter, 1997.Modernity is usually considered a wrong turn in terms of respect for and sustaining the environment.Â I argue the reality is more complex, for modernity has freed us from personal dependence on agriculture, ended the economic value of children, radically reduced the likelihood of large scale wat, and shifted much production to intellectual rather than material capital.Â This partially decouples society from nature, which gives us important opportunities as well as problems.Towards an Ecocentric Political Economy (PDF)The Trumpeter, Fall, 1996.This paper begins my effort at showing how liberal modernity can be harmonized with an ecocentric perspective on our relationship with the natural world.Â It is a corrective to much “free market environmental” literature that sacrifices Nature to money as well as to anti-liberal attacks by well-meaning but economically naÃ¯ve environmentalists.Unexpected Harmonies: Self-Organization in Liberal Modernity and Ecology (PDF)The Trumpeter, Journal of Ecosophy, 10:1, Winter 1993This is my initial paper exploring how what I term ‘evolutionary liberal’ thought can be an important means by which society and nature can be brought into greater harmony.Â The other Trumpeter papers build on it.Deep Ecology and Liberalism: The Greener Implications of Evolutionary Liberalism (PDF)Review of Politics, Fall, 1996.Liberal thought and deep ecology are usually regarded as mutually exclusive. But the “evolutionary” tradition offers a way to integrate the two through commonalties in the work of David Hume, Michael Polanyi, Arne Naess, and Aldo Leopold, providing a stronger foundation for liberalism while strengthening the case for an ecocentric ethic.(Related subjects: Ecology)Saving Western Towns: A Jeffersonian Green Proposal (PDF)in Writers on the Range, Karl Hess and John Baden, eds., University Press of Colorado, 1998.Developmental pressures in the rural and small town West involve three groups: long term residents, new arrivals, and environmentalists. Today their interests often conflict. This conflict is in part the outcome of institutions which prevent harmonizing competing interests. The concept of developmental trusts, both for rural regions and for small communities offers a means whereby these interests can be harmonized for the benefit of all concerned.(Related subjects: Politics)Social Ecology, Deep Ecology, and Liberalism (PDF)Critical Review, 6: 2-3, 1992.Murray Bookchin is considered a leading radical environmental theorist. However, his analysis is incapable of leading humankind towards a more respectful and sustainable relationship with the natural world. Criticisms of Bookchin from both the deep ecology and evolutionary liberal perspective complement one another, pointing the way towards a better understanding of how modernity relates to the environment.The paper as a whole offers an early discussion of issues that are more clearly addressed in later papers, particularly Deep Ecology and Liberalism (1996) and the three Trumpeter articles in 1997, 1996, and 1993. However, there are other ideas in the article which have not been developed more thoroughly elsewhere.
We recently had a discussion of Gerald Gardner’s involvement with Spiritualism, and it’s possible influence on the Craft. Robert Mathiesen made some very interesting observations about this issue, and not being an expert on Gardner, I contacted some who were. They in turn contacted Philip Heselton, author of Wiccan Roots and Gerald Gardner and the Cauldron of Inspiration, and who will soon be publishing a biography of Gardner, and who has made other important contributions to Craft history.
Gerald encountered spiritualism at several points in his
life, but I think it would be fair to say that he never really got involved in
His first encounter seems to have been his reading of “There
is no Death” by Florence Marryat when he was a boy. He says that was when he
first became convinced of survival beyond death of the physical body.
His encounters with the native peoples of Borneo and Malaya
and his invitation to their rituals gave him a more practical realisation of
the reality of survival.
Whilst his initial encounters with spiritualism on his trip
to England in 1927 did not impress him, he later on that trip did encounter
some mediums in London which convinced him by the accuracy of the messages they
gave to him, particularly from his own mother and from his friend, ‘G’, who had
died a few years before.
I have no evidence that he was involved in spiritualism
following his return to Malaya in 1927.
The next time spiritualism is mentioned is following his
retirement in 1936 when he makes contact with the members of a naturist club (‘Fouracres’)
who are interested in the occult, spiritualism, etc. He joins the club and I
get the impression that he gets involved in long discussions, but there is no
evidence that he was more actively involved in spiritualism that just talking
At this time, he becomes convinced that he had had a
previous lifetime in Cyprus, the result of which is his book “A Goddess Arrives”.
Reincarnation is not, I think, a common belief among spiritualists, who mostly
come from a Christian background, but it is a firm, and important, belief of
This is intensified when he becomes involved, or at least on
the periphery of, the Crotona Fellowship, but following his contact with the
witches, his focus become witchcraft. I have no evidence that he was involved
in any spiritualist groups when he was in Highcliffe.
After the war, when he was living in London, he became a
reasonably active member of both the Folklore Society and the Society for
Psychical Research. Particularly in the latter he would have met spiritualists
such as Dingwall and Cannon, and doubtless several more. His first initiate,
Barbara Vickers, was also a keen spiritualist. In the 1950s he gave several
talks to various spiritualist groups.
My conclusions are that he accepted the spiritualist premise
of survival of death, that he knew spiritualists throughout his life and that
he talked to spiritualist groups, but that he was never actively involved in
such groups – he was too busy with other things, and could never focus his time
sufficiently to do so.
Anyway, I think that’s my initial view, but I am willing to
change it at a moment’s notice if new evidence comes up – I am not addicted to
it in any way.